VPAC2 Receptor Antibodies
The VPAC2 receptor, which responds to VIP and PACAP with comparable affinity. In the CNS, the highest concentrations of VPAC2 receptors are found in the thalamus and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and lower levels in the hippocampus, brainstem, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. The receptor is also present in many peripheral tissues, including smooth muscles in the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems. A number of selective peptide agonists and an antagonist with some selectivity for the VPAC2 receptor have been reported. VPAC2 receptor desensitization, β-arrestin recruitment and internalization are regulated by phosphorylation of carboxyl-terminal serine408/serine409 (pS408/pS409-VPAC2), serine411/serine415 (pS411/pS415-VPAC2) and serine425/serine429 (pS425/pS429-VPAC2). This nomenclature refers to the human VPAC2 receptor. This phosphorylation motif is conserved across species but corresponds to pS406/pS408-VPAC2, pS410/pS414-VPAC2 and pS424/pS428-VPAC2 in mice and rats. For more information on VPAC2 pharmacology please refer to the IUPHAR database. For further reading refer to:
Harmar AJ, Fahrenkrug J, Gozes I, Laburthe M, May V, Pisegna JR, Vaudry D, Vaudry H, Waschek JA, Said SI. Pharmacology and functions of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: IUPHAR review 1. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 May;166(1):4-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01871.x. PMID: 22289055; PMCID: PMC3415633.
Laburthe M, Couvineau A, Marie JC. VPAC receptors for VIP and PACAP. Recept Channels. 2002;8(3-4):137-53. PMID: 12529932.
Fahrenkrug J, Goetzl EJ, Gozes I, Harmar A, Laburthe M, May V, Pisegna JR, Said SI, Vaudry H, Vaudry D, Waschek JA. VIP and PACAP receptors (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE. 2019; 2019(4).