Hydroxycarboxylic Acid Receptor 2 Antibodies
The HCA2 receptor (GPR109A) is a receptor for the ketone body 2-hydroxy-butyric acid. HCA2 receptors are expressed in adipocytes and are coupled to Gi-type G-proteins mediating anti-lipolytic effects in fat cells. HCA2 is also expressed in a variety of immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and Langerhans cells. The HCA2 receptor has been identified as a molecular target of fumarate anti-inflammatory drugs in an inflammatory skin disease model. Monomethyl fumarate/dimethyl fumarate-induced activation of HCA2 is reported to inhibit the infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes into the skin which limits skin pathology. This effect is not observed in HCA2-null mice. The HCA2 receptor may also be implicated in mediating neuropathic pain/neuroinflammation, based on evidence that tactile allodynia in an animal model is Hca2-dependent. HCA2 is a receptor for the anti-dyslipidemic drug nicotinic acid (niacin). HCA2 receptor activity is regulated by phosphorylation of carboxyl-terminal threonine338 (pT338-HCA2). For more information on HCA2 receptor pharmacology please refer to the IUPHAR database. For further reading refer to:
Offermanns S, Colletti SL, Lovenberg TW, Semple G, Wise A, IJzerman AP. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXII: Nomenclature and Classification of Hydroxy-carboxylic Acid Receptors (GPR81, GPR109A, and
GPR109B). Pharmacol Rev. 2011 Jun;63(2):269-90. doi: 10.1124/pr.110.003301. Epub 2011 Mar 31. PMID: 21454438.
Colletti SL, IJzerman AP, Lovenberg TW, Offermanns S, Semple G, Waters MG, Wise A. Hydroxycarboxylic acid receptors in GtoPdb v.2023.1. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE. 2023; 2023(1).