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Phosphorylation of intracellular serine and threonine residues is the most important post translational modification of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) also called heptahelical or seven transmembrane receptors (7TMR). After agonist exposure, these receptors acquire an active conformation, which is recognized by a family of highly specialized GPCR kinases (GRKs). Agonist-driven phosphorylation by GRKs regulates acute receptor desensitization, arrestin recruitment, internalization, post-activation signaling, long-term tolerance and drug addiction. Phosphosite-specific 7TM antibodies are designed to specifically detect agonist-activated GPCRs. In fact, recent work shows that ligand profiling using phosphosite-specific 7TM antibodies provides valuble information on ligand bias beyond that obtained with conventional ß-arrestin recruitment assays. Phosphosite-specific 7TM antibodies are novel tools for GPCR research that can be used to:

  • profile agonist properties of novel GPCR ligands
  • decipher the phosphorylation barcode of GPCRs
  • determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of receptor phosphorylation
  • identify relevant kinases and phosphatases for GPCR phosphorylation and dephosphoryation

Lifecycle3


Schematic representation of the G protein-coupled receptor phosphorylation / dephosphorylation cycle. GRK, G protein-coupled receptor kinase; PKC, protein kinase C; cPP1, catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1; R*, activated GPCR; CCP, clathrin-coated pit. 

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pS373/pS374-V1B (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor 1B Antibody)
pS373/pS374-V1B (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor...
Serine373/Serine374 (S373/S374) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopressin Receptor 1B (V1B). The pS373/pS374-V1B antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S373/S374 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Threonine377/Threonine378 phosphorylation of the Vasopressin Receptor 1B
pT377/pT378-V1B (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor...
Threonine377/Threonine378 (T377/T378) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopressin Receptor 1B (V1B). The pT377/pT378-V1B antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T377/T378 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Serine397/Threonine398 phosphorylation of the Vasopressin Receptor 1A
pS397/pT398-V1A (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor...
Serine397/Threonine398 (S397/T398) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopressin Receptor 1A (V1A). The pS397/pT398-V1A antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S397/T398 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Threonine386/Serine389 phosphorylation of the Vasopressin Receptor 1A
pT386/pS389-V1A (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor...
Threonine386/Serine389 (T368/S389) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopressin Receptor 1A (V1A). The pT386/pS389-V1A antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T386/S389 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Threonine378/Serine380 phosphorylation of the Vasopressin Receptor 1A
pT378/pS380-V1A (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor...
Threonine378/Serine380 (T378/S380) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopressin Receptor 1A (V1A). The pT378/pS380-V1A antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T378/S380 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Serine350 phosphorylation of the Vasopressin Receptor 2
pS350-V2 (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor 2 Antibody)
Serine350 (S350) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopresssin Receptor 2 (V2). The pS350-V2 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S350 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient ligand sequestration by...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Threonine359/Threonine360 phosphorylation of the Vasopressin Receptor 2.
pT359/pT360-V2 (phospho-Vasopressin Receptor 2...
Threonine359/Threonine360 (T359/T360) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopressin Receptor 2 (V2). The pT359/pT360-V2 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T359/T360 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
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Agonist-induced Serine362/Serine363/Serine364 phosphorylation of the Vasopressin Receptor 2
pS362/pS363/pS364-V2 (phospho-Vasopressin...
Serine362/Serine363/Serine364 (S362/S363/S364) is major phosphorylation site of the Vasopresssin Receptor 2 (V2). The pS362/pS363/pS364-V2 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S362/S363/S364 phosphorylation is likely...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Serine320/Serine321 phosphorylation of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 6
pS320/pS321-CXCR6 (phospho-CXC Chemokine...
Serine320/Serine321 (S320/S321) is a major phosphorylation site of the CXCR6 receptor. The pS320/pS321-CXCR6 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to high- and low-efficacy agonists but not after PKC activation. S320/S321...
$ 350.00
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Validation of the Dopamine Receptor 2 in transfected HEK293 cells.
D2 (non-phospho), Dopamine Receptor 2 Antibody
The non-phospho-D2 receptor antibody is directed against the third intracellular loop of mouse, rat and human D2 dopamine receptor. It detects both the long and short form of D2. It can be used to detect total D2 receptors in Western...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Serine401 phosphorylation of the Neurotensin Receptor
pS401-NTS1 (phospho-Neurotensin Receptor 1...
Serine401 (S401) is major phosphorylation site of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 (NTS1). The pS401-NTS1 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S401 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient ligand sequestration...
$ 350.00
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 Agonist-induced Serine403/Serine404 phosphorylation of the Neurotensin Receptor 1
pS403/pS404-NTS1 (phospho-Neurotensin Receptor...
Serine403/Serine404 (S403/S404) is major phosphorylation site of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 (NTS1). The pS403/pS404-NTS1 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S403/S404 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Serine257/Threonine262 phosphorylation of the D3 Dopamine Receptor
pS257/pT262-D3 (phospho-Dopamine Receptor 3...
Serine257/Threonine262 (S257/T262) is a major phosphorylation site of the D3 dopamine receptor. The pS257/pT262-D3 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to high- and low-efficacy agonists but not after PKC activation. S262/T262...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Threonine360/Serine361 phosphorylation of the Bombesin Receptor 3
pT360/pS361-BB3 (phospho-Bombesin Receptor 3...
Threonine360/Serine361 (T360/S361) is major phosphorylation site of the Bombesin Receptor 3 (BB3). The pT360/pS361-BB3 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T360/S361 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Threonine363/Threonine364 phosphorylation of the Bombesin Receptor 3
pT363/pT364-BB3 (phospho-Bombesin Receptor 3...
Threonine363/Threonine360 (T363/T364) is major phosphorylation site of the Bombesin Receptor 3 (BB3). The pT363/pT364-BB3 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T363/T364 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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Agonist-induced Threonine306/Threonine310 phosphorylation of the FFA2 Receptor
pT306/pT310-FFA2 (phospho-FFA2 Antibody)
Threonine306/Threonine310 (T306/T310) is major phosphorylation site of the FFA 2 Receptor (FFA2). The pT306/pT310-FFA2 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T306/T310 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
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For further reading refer to:

Kliewer A, Reinscheid RK, Schulz S. Emerging Paradigms of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Dephosphorylation. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jul;38(7):621-636. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2017.04.002. Epub 2017 May 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 28478994.

Miess E, Gondin AB, Yousuf A, Steinborn R, Mösslein N, Yang Y, Göldner M, Ruland JG, Bünemann M, Krasel C, Christie MJ, Halls ML, Schulz S, Canals M. Multisite phosphorylation is required for sustained interaction with GRKs and arrestins during rapid μ-opioid receptor desensitization. Sci Signal. 2018 Jul 17;11(539). pii: eaas9609. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aas9609. PubMed PMID: 30018083.

Kliewer A, Schmiedel F, Sianati S, Bailey A, Bateman JT, Levitt ES, Williams JT, Christie MJ, Schulz S. Phosphorylation-deficient G-protein-biased μ-opioid receptors improve analgesia and diminish tolerance but worsen opioid side effects. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 21;10(1):367. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-08162-1. PubMed PMID: 30664663; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6341117.

Mann A, Moulédous L, Froment C, O'Neill PR, Dasgupta P, Günther T, Brunori G, Kieffer BL, Toll L, Bruchas MR, Zaveri NT, Schulz S. Agonist-selective NOP receptor phosphorylation correlates in vitro and in vivo and reveals differential post-activation signaling by chemically diverse agonists. Sci Signal. 2019 Mar 26;12(574). pii: eaau8072. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aau8072. PubMed PMID: 30914485; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6934085.

Saaber F, Schütz D, Miess E, Abe P, Desikan S, Ashok Kumar P, Balk S, Huang K, Beaulieu JM, Schulz S, Stumm R. ACKR3 Regulation of Neuronal Migration Requires ACKR3 Phosphorylation, but Not β-Arrestin. Cell Rep. 2019 Feb 5;26(6):1473-1488.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.049. PubMed PMID: 30726732.

Glück L, Loktev A, Moulédous L, Mollereau C, Law PY, Schulz S. Loss of morphine reward and dependence in mice lacking G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 15;76(10):767-74. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.01.021. Epub 2014 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 24629717; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4119866.

For further reading refer to: Kliewer A, Reinscheid RK, Schulz S. Emerging Paradigms of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Dephosphorylation. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jul;38(7):621-636.... read more »
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For further reading refer to:

Kliewer A, Reinscheid RK, Schulz S. Emerging Paradigms of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Dephosphorylation. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jul;38(7):621-636. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2017.04.002. Epub 2017 May 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 28478994.

Miess E, Gondin AB, Yousuf A, Steinborn R, Mösslein N, Yang Y, Göldner M, Ruland JG, Bünemann M, Krasel C, Christie MJ, Halls ML, Schulz S, Canals M. Multisite phosphorylation is required for sustained interaction with GRKs and arrestins during rapid μ-opioid receptor desensitization. Sci Signal. 2018 Jul 17;11(539). pii: eaas9609. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aas9609. PubMed PMID: 30018083.

Kliewer A, Schmiedel F, Sianati S, Bailey A, Bateman JT, Levitt ES, Williams JT, Christie MJ, Schulz S. Phosphorylation-deficient G-protein-biased μ-opioid receptors improve analgesia and diminish tolerance but worsen opioid side effects. Nat Commun. 2019 Jan 21;10(1):367. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-08162-1. PubMed PMID: 30664663; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6341117.

Mann A, Moulédous L, Froment C, O'Neill PR, Dasgupta P, Günther T, Brunori G, Kieffer BL, Toll L, Bruchas MR, Zaveri NT, Schulz S. Agonist-selective NOP receptor phosphorylation correlates in vitro and in vivo and reveals differential post-activation signaling by chemically diverse agonists. Sci Signal. 2019 Mar 26;12(574). pii: eaau8072. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aau8072. PubMed PMID: 30914485; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6934085.

Saaber F, Schütz D, Miess E, Abe P, Desikan S, Ashok Kumar P, Balk S, Huang K, Beaulieu JM, Schulz S, Stumm R. ACKR3 Regulation of Neuronal Migration Requires ACKR3 Phosphorylation, but Not β-Arrestin. Cell Rep. 2019 Feb 5;26(6):1473-1488.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.049. PubMed PMID: 30726732.

Glück L, Loktev A, Moulédous L, Mollereau C, Law PY, Schulz S. Loss of morphine reward and dependence in mice lacking G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 15;76(10):767-74. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.01.021. Epub 2014 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 24629717; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4119866.

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