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Adenosine Receptor Antibodies

Adenosine is ubiquitously present in the extracellular medium in all tissues and acts as a local modulator by activating four well-defined G protein-coupled receptors. The four adenosine receptors, called A1, A2A, A2B and A3, have been cloned from numerous mammalian species, including man. These receptors are denoted adenosine receptors, but may also be called P1 receptors to distinguish them from the receptors for nucleotides, which belong either to the family of transmitter-gated ion channels (P2X receptors) or the family of G protein-coupled receptors (P2Y receptors). All immune cells express receptors for adenosine. It is suggested that adenosine exhibits pro-inflammatory effects through its A1 receptor, and anti-inflammatory effects through A2A receptor. It is noteworthy that A1 receptor expression peaks during leukocyte recruitment, and this drives increased expression of A2A receptor which facilitates resolution of inflammation. Over the past decades highly selective agonists and antagonists for adenosine receptors have been developed. Caffeine is a nonselective antagonist for adenosine receptors, while istradefylline, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, is on the market for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

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Agonist-induced Serine329 phosphorylation of the A2A Adenosine Receptor
pS329-A2A (phospho-A2A Adenosine Receptor...
Serine329 is a major phosphorylation site of the A2A Adenosine receptor. The pS329-A2A antibody detects phosphorylation in response to high-efficacy agonists but not after PKC activation. S329 phosphorylation is a key regulator of A2A...
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For more information on adenosin pharmacology please refer to the IUPHAR database. For further reading refer to:

Fredholm BB, Abbracchio MP, Burnstock G, Daly JW, Harden TK, Jacobson KA, Leff P, Williams M. Nomenclature and classification of purinoceptors. Pharmacol Rev. 1994 Jun;46(2):143-56. PMID: 7938164; PMCID: PMC4976594.

Fredholm BB, Frenguelli BG, Hills R, IJzerman AP, Jacobson KA, Klotz KN, Linden J, Müller CE, Schwabe U, Stiles GL. Adenosine receptors in GtoPdb v.2021.2. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE. 2021; 2021(2).

For more information on adenosin pharmacology please refer to the IUPHAR database. For further reading refer to: Fredholm BB, Abbracchio MP, Burnstock G, Daly JW, Harden TK, Jacobson KA, Leff... read more »
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Adenosine Receptor Antibodies

For more information on adenosin pharmacology please refer to the IUPHAR database. For further reading refer to:

Fredholm BB, Abbracchio MP, Burnstock G, Daly JW, Harden TK, Jacobson KA, Leff P, Williams M. Nomenclature and classification of purinoceptors. Pharmacol Rev. 1994 Jun;46(2):143-56. PMID: 7938164; PMCID: PMC4976594.

Fredholm BB, Frenguelli BG, Hills R, IJzerman AP, Jacobson KA, Klotz KN, Linden J, Müller CE, Schwabe U, Stiles GL. Adenosine receptors in GtoPdb v.2021.2. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology CITE. 2021; 2021(2).

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