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Free Fatty Acid Receptor Antibodies

Free fatty acid receptors (FFA) are activated by free fatty acids. Long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids including myristic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid activate FFA1 and FFA4 receptors, while short chain fatty acids including acetic acid, propanoic acid, butyric acid and pentanoic acid activate FFA2 and FFA3 receptors. In addition, GPR84 is putatively activated by medium-chain fatty acids. Long-chain fatty acids are thought to reach levels of 0.01-10 μM in the circulation, mainly being products of dietary intake, adipose recycling and hepatic turnover of neutral fats. Short chain fatty acids are generated during fermentation of resistant starches and indigestible fiber by anaerobic gut flora and can reach millimolar concentrations in the hind-gut. Short chain fatty acids can also be generated as metabolic byproducts of anaerobic bacteria and following alcohol ingestion. The concentration of total short chain fatty acids in human peripheral blood is 50-100 μM and 300-450 μM in portal blood.  It is possible that, rather than being redundant, that receptor tissue distribution combined with local fatty acid levels and their carbon chain-lengths and degree of saturation will determine the physiological role of the receptors. The role of FFA1 is best understood due to the phenotyping of transgenic mice and identification of selective small-molecule agonists and an antagonist. With the central role that fatty acids play in metabolism and other physiological functions including regulation of the immune response, the FFA receptor family currently provide a key focus for development of novel therapeutic agents.

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Agonist-induced Threonine349/Serine350 phosphorylation of the FFA Receptor 4
pT349/pS350-FFA4 (phospho-FFA4 Antibody)
Threonine349/Serine350 (T349/S350) is major phosphorylation site of the FFA Receptor 4 (FFA4). The pT349/pS350-FFA4 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T349/S350 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient...
$ 350.00
NEW
Agonist-induced Threonine347 phosphorylation of the FFA Receptor 4
pT347-FFA4 (phospho-FFA4 Antibody)
Threonine347 (T347) is major phosphorylation site of the FFA Receptor 4 (FFA4). The pT347-FFA4 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T347 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient ligand sequestration by...
$ 350.00
NEW
 Agonist-induced Threonine328/Serine329 phosphorylation of the FFA Receptor 3
pT328/pS329-FFA3 (phospho-FFA3 Antibody)
Threonine328/Serine329 (T328/S329) is major phosphorylation site of the FFA Receptor 3 (FFA3). The pT328/pS329-FFA3 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T328/S329 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient...
$ 350.00
NEW
Agonist-induced Serine305/Serine306 phosphorylation of the FFA Receptor 3
pS305/pS306-FFA3 (phospho-FFA3 Antibody)
Serine305/Serine306 (S305/S306) is major phosphorylation site of the FFA Receptor 3 (FFA3). The pS305/pS306-FFA3 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S305/S306 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient...
$ 350.00
NEW
Agonist-induced Threonine306/Threonine310 phosphorylation of the FFA2 Receptor
pT306/pT310-FFA2 (phospho-FFA2 Antibody)
Threonine306/Threonine310 (T306/T310) is major phosphorylation site of the FFA 2 Receptor (FFA2). The pT306/pT310-FFA2 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T306/T310 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in...
$ 350.00
NEW
Constitutive Serine296/Serine297 phosphorylation of the FFA Receptor 2
pS296/pS297-FFA2 (phospho-FFA2 Antibody)
Serine296/Serine297 (S296/S297) is major phosphorylation site of the FFA Receptor 2 (FFA2). The pS296/pS297-FFA2 antibody detects constitutive phosphorylation of FFA2.
$ 350.00
NEW
Agonist-induced Threonine263/Threonine264 phosphorylation of GPR84
pT263/pT264-GPR84 (phospho-GPR84 Antibody)
Threonine263/Threonine264 (T263/T264) is major phosphorylation site of human GPR84 receptor. The pT263/pT264-GPR84 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. T263/T264 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient...
$ 350.00
NEW
Agonist-induced Serine221/Serine224 phosphorylation of GPR84
pS221/pS224-GPR84 (phospho-GPR84 Antibody)
Serine221/Serine224 (S221/S224) is major phosphorylation site of human GPR84 receptor. The pS221/pS224-GPR84 antibody detects phosphorylation in response to agonists. S221/S224 phosphorylation is likely to be involved in efficient ligand...
$ 350.00
NEW
Validation of the G protein-coupled Receptor 84 in transfected HEK293 cells
GPR84 (non-phospho), G Protein-Coupled Receptor...
The GPR84 antibody is directed against the distal end of the carboxyl-terminal tail of human GRP84. It can be used to detect total GPR84 receptors in Western blots independent of phosphorylation. The GPR84 antibody can also be used to...
$ 350.00

For more information on free fatty acid receptor pharmacology please refer to the IUPHAR database. For further reading refer to:

Stoddart LA, Smith NJ, Milligan G. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXI. Free fatty acid receptors FFA1, -2, and -3: pharmacology and pathophysiological functions. Pharmacol Rev. 2008 Dec;60(4):405-17. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.00802. Epub 2008 Dec 1. PMID: 19047536.

Riddy DM, Delerive P, Summers RJ, Sexton PM, Langmead CJ. G Protein-Coupled Receptors Targeting Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Pharmacol Rev. 2018 Jan;70(1):39-67. doi: 10.1124/pr.117.014373. PMID: 29233848.

For more information on free fatty acid receptor pharmacology please refer to the  IUPHAR  database. For further reading refer to: Stoddart LA, Smith NJ, Milligan G. International... read more »
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Free Fatty Acid Receptor Antibodies

For more information on free fatty acid receptor pharmacology please refer to the IUPHAR database. For further reading refer to:

Stoddart LA, Smith NJ, Milligan G. International Union of Pharmacology. LXXI. Free fatty acid receptors FFA1, -2, and -3: pharmacology and pathophysiological functions. Pharmacol Rev. 2008 Dec;60(4):405-17. doi: 10.1124/pr.108.00802. Epub 2008 Dec 1. PMID: 19047536.

Riddy DM, Delerive P, Summers RJ, Sexton PM, Langmead CJ. G Protein-Coupled Receptors Targeting Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Pharmacol Rev. 2018 Jan;70(1):39-67. doi: 10.1124/pr.117.014373. PMID: 29233848.

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